LEMIT Research

[ Current Emerging Issues ]

Emerging Issues Archive

We recognize that there is not much that is truly new in policing today. Old ideas and existing practices sometimes become today's buzz words when they are re-labeled. The R & D Unit in LEMIT is committed to monitoring trends to identify truly emerging issues as well as those that may have been with us for some time, but are becoming more salient.

It is important for law enforcement professionals to be informed about these issues that may affect the day-to-day practice of law enforcement. This page serves to conglomerate up-to-date information on significant and substantive issues both relevant and important to Texas law enforcement.

Smart Policing Initiative

"The Smart Policing Initiative (SPI) is a collaborative consortium composed of the Bureau of Justice Assistance, CNA, and sixteen local law enforcement agencies that are testing solutions to serious crime problems in their jurisdictions. As a smaller "laboratory of the States" these agencies work not just for their individual jurisdictions but for all law enforcement agencies interested in providing quality police services. With a research partner of their choice, they are collecting and analyzing data and devising or modifying solutions to problems such as street robberies, juvenile prescription drug abuse, repeat violent offenders, and neighborhood drug markets. The results of their efforts will be carefully evaluated and published for review by other agencies confronted with similar problems." - smartpolicinginitiative.com

Smart Policing
AUTHOR: Bureau of Justice Assistance
FORMAT: smartpolicinginitiative.com

Predictive Policing

Predictive policing is an approach that is in its infancy. The resources listed below offer some background information on this approach as well as emerging evidence from the Los Angeles Police Department.

LAPD Computer Program Prevents Crime by Predicting It

‘Predictive Policing' Technology Lowers Crime in Los Angeles
AUTHOR: Greg Risling
SOURCE: Huffington Post

Predictive Policing Arrives in Charleston
AUTHOR: Paul Bowers
SOURCE: Charleston City Paper

Predictive Policing: What Can We Learn from Wal-Mart and Amazon about Fighting Crime in a Recession?
AUTHOR: Charlie Beck
SOURCE: The Police Chief

IACP 2010: Using predictive policing to prevent crime
AUTHOR: Doug Wylie
SOURCE: Policeone.com

Recruitment and Retention

Civilians continually rely on police agencies to serve and protect them within their communities. In order to ensure the best possible performance, agencies must have the ability not only to recruit the best potential officers, but to retain them as long term members.

BOOK: Competence and Policing: A Research Study
AUTHOR: David Webb
SOURCE: VDM Publishing: Saarbrücken, Germany (2008)

BOOK: Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium: The State of Knowledge
AUTHOR: Jeremy Wilson, Erin Dalton, Charles Scheer, & Clifford Grammich
SOURCE: RAND Corporation (2010)

Police Recruitment and Retention Clearinghouse - Rand

Helping the Los Angeles Police Department Recruit Efficiently
AUTHOR: Nelson Lim, Carl Matthies, Greg Ridgeway, Brian Gifford
SOURCE: RAND Corporation (2009)

Strategies Suggested to Address San Diego Police Officer Recruiting Shortage
AUTHOR: Greg Ridgeway, Nelson Lim, Brian Gifford, Christopher Koper, Carl Matthies, Sara Hajiamiri, Alexis Huynh
SOURCE: RAND Corporation (2008)

Cop Crunch: Identifying Strategies for Dealing with the Recruiting and Hiring Crisis in Law Enforcement
AUTHOR: Bruce Taylor, Bruce Kubu, Lorie Fridell, Carter Rees, Tom Jordan, & Jason Cheney
SOURCE: RAND Corporation (2006)

Local Police Should Address Recruitment and Retention Challenges
AUTHOR: by Barbara Raymond, Laura J. Hickman, Laura L. Miller, & Jennifer S. Wong
SOURCE: RAND Corporation (2010)

Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies
AUTHOR: Christopher S. Koper, Edward R. Maguire, & Gretchen E. Moore
SOURCE: University of Pennsylvania (2010)

Law Enforcement and Social Media

Now more than ever, the world is connected via the internet. People make use of social networking websites like Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace to maintain relationships with friends and family. Police agencies may be able to use these social networking sites in many ways, such as when investigating crime and communicating with a host of different communities. With this technology comes a responsibility to understand how police can use it effectively and to consider the significant issues that surround its use.

Facebook offers local agencies a new medium for police work
AUTHOR: Karla Ward
SOURCE: Lexington Herald-Leader (2011)

Facebook Slip Leads Police to Shooting Suspect
AUTHOR: Meredith Singer
SOURCE: All Facebook (2011)

Social Networking Helps Ohio Police Nab Texter
AUTHOR: Associated Press
SOURCE: ABC News (2011)

Intelligence-Led Policing

"Intelligence-led policing is a business model and managerial philosophy where data analysis and crime intelligence are pivotal to an objective, decision-making framework that facilitates crime and problem reduction, disruption and prevention through both strategic management and effective enforcement strategies that target prolific and serious offenders." - Ratcliffe, JH (2008) 'Intelligence-Led Policing' (Willan Publishing: Cullompton, Devon).

What is Intelligence-Led Policing?
AUTHOR: Jerry Ratcliffe
SOURCE: jratcliffe.net
Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture
AUTHOR: Marilyn Peterson
SOURCE: NCJRS.gov (2005)

Intelligence‐Led Policing
AUTHOR: Jerry Ratcliffe
SOURCE: Wortley, R., & Mazerolle, L. (Eds.) (2008). Environment criminology and crime analysis. Cullompton, Devon: Wilan Publishing.

Procedurally Fair Policing

A central concern for all police agencies is legitimacy. In order to ensure the cooperation of the public, agencies and officers must be viewed as legitimate authority. The primary method to accomplish this is by mandating that all interaction between law enforcement and civilians follow objective standards of procedural fairness.

The Paradox of American Policing: Performance without Legitimacy
AUTHORS: Tom Tyler & Albert Pearsall
SOURCE: cops.usdoj.gov (2010)

Don't Jump the Shark: Understanding Deterrence and Legitimacy in the Architecture of Law Enforcement (Webinar)
AUTHOR: Tracey Meares
SOURCE: nij.gov (2010)

Enhancing police legitimacy
AUTHOR: Tom Tyler
SOURCE: American Academy of Political and Social Science (2004)

Police and Prisoner Reentry

This July 2012 report from the National Institute of Justice offers a perspective on the role of police in prisoner reentry.

Exploring the Role of the Police in Prisoner Reentry
AUTHORS: Jeremy Travis, Ronald Davis, & Sarah Lawrence
SOURCE: National Institute of Justice

Eyewitness Identification Policy Reforms

In the context of significant concerns about the role of mistaken eyewitness identification in wrongful conviction cases and with an existing body of research evidence, police departments and states around the country are working to improve lineup practices. Below is a listing of research and the LEMIT model policy that was developed in 2011.

Report of the Special Master (as part of the Henderson case in New Jersey)

A Test of the Simultaneous vs. Sequential Lineup Methods
AUTHORS: Gary L. Wells, Nancy K. Steblay, & Jennifer E. Dysart
SOURCE: American Judicature Society

Costs and Benefits of Eyewitness Identification Reform: Psychological Science and Public Policy
AUTHOR: Steven E. Clark
SOURCE: Perspectives on Psychological Science

Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification
SOURCE: National Research Council

LEMIT Model Policy on Eyewitness Identification and FAQ